Simply Haiku: A Quarterly Journal of Japanese Short Form Poetry
Contents Archives About Simply Haiku Submissions Search
Autumn 2006, vol 4 no 3

The Heart in Season: Sampling the Gendai Haiku Non-season Muki Saijiki[1]
Translators: Yūki Itō, Tomoko Murase, Ayaka Nishikawa, Tomoko Takaki
Compiler and editor: Richard Gilbert

 
   

Preface by Yūki Itō, with Richard Gilbert

About a decade ago, Tohta Kaneko wrote An Introduction to Haiku,[2] an illuminating presentation of haiku culture. Within, two main attitudes toward seasonal themes (kidai) or seasonal keywords (kigo) are discussed: the divergent approaches typified by Bashō and Issa. Bashō's attitude toward kidai tends toward idealism, while Issa takes an approach related with realism. These two attitudes to seasonal themes or keywords continue today. Bashō lived like a traveling hermit and pursued deep philosophical thought, while Issa lived a penniless life among the masses. Bashō comes from the samurai class, while Issa hails from the farmer or peasant class. Bashō celebrates a penniless life because such a lifestyle finds sympathy with the renunciation of desire. Issa, on the other hand, felt that such a glorification of poverty was based on the stable status of the samurai class, and that Bashō did not know real poverty. We might say that Bashō is an illuminating philosopher, but he has a certain strain of idealism (“a thing useless for daily life is beautiful” is a Bashō aphorism), where Issa is more the realist. These two haiku poets' philosophies and attitudes toward seasonal keywords are strikingly different.

Before discussing this point further, it seems useful to clarify some of the technical terms used. From a philological point of view, the term "haiku" did not exist in the Edo period (from circa 1600). Following the Meiji revolution (1868) Japan was introduced to Western technology, philosophy, etc., and was strongly influenced by Western art movements (e.g. Romanticism, Impressionism). Shiki Masaoka (1867-1902) refined and developed the hokku or haikai into "haiku," coining the new term, and made “haiku” independent from the hokku tradition (the first stanza of a renga). After haiku became a fully independent genre, the term "kigo" was coined by Otsuzi Ōsuga (1881-1920) in 1908. "Kigo" is thus a new term for the new genre approach of "haiku." So, when we are looking historically at hokku or haikai stemming from the renga tradition, it seems best to use the term "kidai." Although the term "kidai" is itself new—coined by Hekigotō Kawahigashi in 1907! When discussing Bashō and Issa, the term "kidai" is best applied, because both of these authors’ works are in the tradition of hokku. It is this term which Tohta Kaneko uses throughout An Introduction to Haiku.

Returning to Bashō and Issa, Bashō regards kidai as a way to commune with the creative power of nature (zōke). Bashō does not regard kidai as a rule, but rather as a word or keyword establishing a relationship with kokoro (heart, mind). Kaneko Tohta paraphrases: "Bashō said to his disciples, 'find kidai for yourself. If you are unable to do this, you cannot become a good haikaishi (haiku poet).'" Importantly, this is not because kidai is primary in itself, but rather that without finding an expression of language which unites Self with zōke, one cannot achieve a deep sense of heart (i.e. knowing). Basho also has said, "Even if the word is not traditional kidai, in the case that the word has enough quality to be kidai, do choose it and use it. When you find a new kidai, it will be a great gift for the next generation" (Kyoraishō). The Muki Saijiki[3] compiles these types of words as muki-kigo for the first time.

In contrast to Bashō, Issa regards kidai as language arising from daily life. For example, Issa regards snow—one of the four prototypical season‑symbols of "most beautiful things" in Japanese poetry and cultural tradition—as distasteful, as snow is related with the terrible hardships he faced in his northern homeland. We see that, contrastively, Issa treats small insects and animals as kidai in a strongly compassionate manner (against the primary locus of the tradition). Insects are companions in daily life. So, Issa sought kidai from daily living, while Bashō sought kidai primarily from the essential phenomenology of kokoro. In this regard, Tohta Kaneko discusses two types of kokoro. One is the "solitary thinker's heart," written as (kokoro). Another is "compassionate heart," written as (furari-gokoro). This difference had vanished by the end of the Edo period, but existed when Bashō and Issa lived. Tohta Kaneko continues (to paraphrase) that "Bashō is a pursuer of the 'solitary thinker's heart,' while Issa is an impoverished person with a 'compassionate heart.' Issa exemplifies futari-gokoro in his use of kidai."

In Issa’s philosophy, based to a large extent on daily life, we note that the horse and dog are close and constant companions. It seems precisely due to this close and constant relationship that neither of these animal species appears in any previous saijiki. The Muki Saijiki contains hundreds of similar examples. In fact, none of the terms in the Muki Saijiki are generally found in regular saijiki.

 

Organization

A traditional saijiki normally has seven sections: jikō (time and season), tenmon (natural phenomena), chiri (geography), seikatsu (daily life), gyōji (seasonal events), dōbutsu (animals), and shokubutsu (plants). Sometimes, two sections are combined into one section; in such a case, the saijiki will have six sections. This present muki saijiki also has six sections; however, there are no jikō or gyōji sections, because the Muki Saijiki is not concerned with "season." Alternatively, the editorial committee has created new sections: ningen (human) and bunka (culture), as contemporary haiku tends to treat themes which are related with human society. This innovative choice of categories is an epoch-making event in the history of the saijiki.

In the listings below there are three levels of category: The top level is represented by the six overarching subjects mentioned just above. Below this level are the main topical categories (the number "2" is placed before these terms, and they are indicated in 'title boldface'). Example haiku may accompany these second‑level terms, but most of the muki‑kigo are at the third, finest level of resolution. Usage of the muki‑kigo is usually literal (the word appears in the haiku); however, this third level of words harbors a sense of figuration. In some examples, a haiku associated with a group of figurations may contain an inference to one of the muki‑kigo, though the orthography (actual word) does not appear. As well, there may be muki‑kigo given, with no example haiku to exemplify it. In such cases sense must follow sensibility—an additional aspect of figuration, related to the future of gendai haiku.

 

In the 30 pages of text that follow are nearly 1000 muki‑kigo terms. Many of these have several variant meanings or significances—this effort points to the scale necessary for a useful saijiki. This single volume is complimented by four additional volumes of roughly equal size, one for each of the four seasons. The five volumes make up the complete saijiki of the Modern Haiku Association.

 


[1]Gendai haiku saijiki (5 vols.) Tokyo: Gendai Haiku Kyôkai [Modern Haiku Association], June 2004.

[2] Except where cited, all materials in this Preface relating to kidai and kigo were taken from haiku nyūmon [Introduction to Haiku], Tokyo: Jitsugyo no Nihonsha, 1997, pp. 196-217, translated by Yūki Itō and Richard Gilbert.

[3] For additional muki saijiki and other kigo resources by the authors, please visit our kigo page [www.iyume.com/research/kigo.html].

 

 

Table of Contents

JP.

ENGLISH

JP.

ENGLISH

天文

1 NATURAL PHENOMENA

夕日

 

3 setting sun / evening sun

2 Sky, Air, Heaven, Vacancy

夕陽

3 evening sun / setting sun

青空

3 blue sky

落日

3 setting of the sun / setting sun

大空

3 (blue) vault of heaven / firmament / arch of sky / spherical, concave

落暉

3 sunset / setting sun / evening sun

3 heaven / sky / sphere / upper region / head, edge / head of page

2 Stars

天体

3 astronomic(al) object, celestial globe, heavenly body, luminary

星座

3 constellation

天空

3 airy region / expanse / firmament / sphere

恒星

3 fixed star

天心

3 the center of heaven / the center of sky

惑星

3 planet

宇宙

3 absolute / cosmos / heaven and earth / world

彗星

3 comet

空間

3 interspace / interval / open space / room / vacancy / vacuity / void

大熊座

3 The Great Bear / the Big Dipper / Ursa Major / the Plow

地球

2 Blue Planet, Earth, Globe

カシオペア

3 Cassiopeia

南極

3 South Pole / negative pole / south geographic pole

2 Eclipse

北極

3 North Pole / north geographic pole / north-seeking pole / positive pole

日食

3 solar eclipse

緯度

3 degrees of latitude / terrestrial latitude

月食

3 lunar eclipse

経度

3 longitude

宇宙船

2 Spaceship, Starship, Rocket Ship

日付変更線

3 International Date Line

人工衛星

3 satellite / artificial satellite

太陽

2 The Sun

宇宙旅行

3 space travel / space voyage

日輪

3 sun disk

2 Cloud, The Clouds

烈日

3 the burning sun      

浮雲

3 floating cloud / drifting cloud

朝日

3 morning sun / rising sun     

白雲

3 white cloud

旭日

3 risen sun

飛行機雲

3 contrail / vapor trail / condensation  / trail / streamer

 


 

  天文 NATURAL PHENOMENA (continued)

JP.

ENGLISH

JP.

ENGLISH

2 Wind, Air Current(s)

2 Darkness, The Dark

海風

3 sea breeze / wind from the sea

暗い

3 dark

陸風

3 land breeze / land wind

冥い

3 dark

微風

3 breeze

暗がり

3 dark place

疾風

3 blast / strong wind

暗闇

3 darkness

2 Rain

夜陰

3 the darkness of the night

雨脚

3 manner of raining / wisp of rain

時間

2 Time

長雨

3 continual rain / long spell of rain 

光陰

3 days / day and night

大雨

3 heavy rain / downpour

星霜

3 years

通り雨

3 passing rain / shower

世紀

3 century

にわか雨

3 sudden shower

白亜紀

3 the Cretaceous period

涙雨

3 sprinkling rain / weeping rain

五十億年

3 five billion years

酸性雨

3 acid rain

未来

2 Future

日溜り

2 Sunny Place, Sunny and Warm Place

2 Year

2 Light

歳月

3 years

閃光

3 flash / gleam / glint of light

年月

3 years and months

発光

3 emission of light / luminescence

四季

3 the four seasons

光芒

3 shaft of light / beam of light

季節

3 season

微光

3 glimmer

平年

3 common year

極光

3 aurora

閏年

3 intercalary year / leap year

反射光

3 reflected light

カレンダー

3 calendar

2 Shadow

3 calendar

影法師

human shadow / silhouette

万歳

3 many years / longevity / prospering for a long time

 


 天文  NATURAL PHENOMENA (continued)

JP.

ENGLISH

JP.

ENGLISH

月日

2 Days, Days and Months

夕暮れ

2 Evening, Dusk

3 week

3 evening

曜日

3 the day of the week

夕方

3 evening

昨日

3 yesterday

黄昏

3 dusk / twilight

今日

3 today

日暮れ

3 sunset

明日

3 tomorrow

夕闇

3 evening gloom / film of early twilight / shadows of dusk

時代

2 Era, Period, Age, Epoch, Time

薄暮

3 evening gloom

明治

3 Meiji era

暮れ六つ

3 six in the evening / 6 p.m.

大正

3 Taisho era

2 Night

昭和

3 Showa era

夜間

3 nighttime / during the night

平成

3 Heisei era

深夜

3 middle of the night

戦前

3 before the war / prewar

真夜中

3 midnight / middle of the night

戦後

3 postwar / after World War II

午前零時

3 midnight / 12 a.m.

2 Morning

夜更け

3 late at night / middle of the night

3 dawn / daybreak

深更

3 middle of the night

夜明け

3 dawn / daybreak

方位

2 Direction, Azimuth, Bearing

明け六つ

3 six in the morning

方角

3 bearing / direction

午前

3 before noon / forenoon / morning

東西南北

3 north, south, east and west /

four cardinal directions / four points of the compass

2 Daytime

鬼門

3 demon's gate / the quarter lying to the northeast of one’s position, superstitiously believed to be unlucky / northeast

正午

3 noon / midday

恵方

3 lucky direction

午後

3 afternoon

距離

2 Distance

白日

3 the bright sun / broad daylight

一里塚

3 milestone / milepost


地理  GEOGRAPHY

JP.

ENGLISH

JP.

ENGLISH

地理

1 GEOGRAPHY

原野

3 an uncultivated field/a plain/wasteland/a wilderness

2 Land

ツンドラ

2 Tundra

大陸

3 continent / mainland / terra firma

地震

2 Earthquake(shock), Earth tremor

大地

3 firm ground / mother earth / terra firma/ terrestrial mass

砂漠

2 Desert

地平線

3 celestial horizon / horizon / horizon line / skyline

2  Mountain, Peak, Hill

平野

3 plain / plain field

山脈

3 a mountain range / a mountain chain

荒野

3 heath / wild land / wilderness / cant / declination /

山岳

3 mountains

傾斜

3 dip / drop-off / grade / gradient / heeling / inclination / lean / pitch / skew / slant / slope / tilt 

裏山

3 a hill in back of one’s house

2 Clay, Clod, Dirt, Earth

3 the highest point on a mountain road / mountain pass

3 earth / ground

3 precipice / cliff / bluff

土地

3 climate / country / estate / ground / land / land lot / place / premises / terrene / white land

雑木林

3 thicket / copse/ coppice

3 paddy field / rice field

未踏峰

3 unclimbed mountain / untrodden peak

荒田

3 abandoned field / /rough field

山畑

3 a mountain field

土埃

3 dust cloud / dirt / dust / fog / mote

火山

2 A volcano

休耕田

3 a fallow field / a field lying fallow

火口

3 (volcanic) crater / a caldera (over 1km)

2 A Wood, Woods, Grove, Forest

火砕流

3 pyroclastic flow / stream of heated rocks and volcanic ash

3 woods / a shrine (sacred) forest

噴火

3 an eruption

3 a grove / a small wood/ a copse

噴煙

3 smoke (fumes) of a volcano (rising from a crater) / volcanic fumes

森林

3 a forest / deep woods

2 Valley, Pressure trough

草原

2 Grass-covered Plain, Grasslands,  Steppes, Savanna, The Pampas

渓谷

3 ravine/ a gorge

野原

3 a field / a plain

谷間

3 glen / hollow / quebrada / valley / defile / cove / swale

大草原

3 campo / pampas / prairie / steppe

山峡

3 a gorge

 


地理  GEOGRAPHY (continued)

JP.

ENGLISH

JP.

ENGLISH

2 An echo

ダム湖

3 a dammed lake

山彦

3 an echo (in the mountains)

湖上

3 on the lake

2 A Stone, Pebble, Rock

湖底

3 the bottom of a lake

岩石

3 a rock / stones and rocks

湖水

3 a lake / lake water

3 a rock / a crag

澪標

2 Wooden poles set in the water to guide boats , a deep‑water channel

岩いわお

3 a rock (especially, rough and pointing sharply to the sky)

2 The tide, A current

巌いわ

3 a large rock / boulder

3 the tide

山河

2 Mountains and Rivers

干潮

3 ebb tide/ low tide

河川

2 Rivers

引き潮

3 an ebb tide / (begin to ebb)

3 (a small) river / stream

満潮

3 high water / a high tide/ a full (flood) tide

3 (a large) river

満ち潮

3 a high tide / (sim. to 満潮, but a softer impression)

水源

3 the source (headwaters) of a river / fountainhead

潮騒

3 the sound (booming, roar) of the sea/ the pounding of the waves/

せせらぎ

3 small stream/  brook/ runnel / a rivulet/ a shallows

海潮音

3 the sound of waves and the sea

小川

3 a (small) stream / creek / brook / a rivulet

湾流

3 bay current

谷川

3 a mountain stream (torrent)

2 The Sea, The Ocean

急流

3 a fast-flowing (rapid, swift) stream/ a fast (swift) current / rapids/ a torrent

海洋

3 the sea / the ocean

伏流水

3 riverbed water / artesian water

大海

3 the ocean / a wide expanse of sea

水たまり

3 a pool / a puddle

深海

3 ocean deeps / an abyss

湖沼

2 Lakes, Marshes

水平線

3 the horizon

3 a lake

 

3 a marsh / a swamp / a bog / a tarn

 


 地理  GEOGRAPHY (continued)

JP.

ENGLISH

 

2 A wave,  Billow, Swell,

   Surf, A Breaker

大波

3 a billow / a great wave of the sea / a boomer / a roller / a swell / a surge

小波

3 a small wave

白波

3 white‑(foam)-crested wave(s) / foaming (white capped) breakers / whitecaps

荒波

3 raging waves / rough waters / heavy seas

波頭

3 the crest of a wave

波涛

3 billows / surges

3 offshore / out at sea

2 A beach,  A shore, The seashore

3 the beach / the shore

海岸線

3 the coastline / shore line / seaboard / a coastal railroad

2 Sand, Grit, A Grain of Sand

砂浜

3 a sandy beach / the sands

砂丘

3 a sand dune / a sand hill

2 A Cape, Promontory, Headland, Spit of Land

半島

3 a peninsula

3 an island / an isle / an islet

日本の地名

2 Place names of Japan

外国の地名

2 Overseas Place names

 


人間  HUMAN

JP.

ENGLISH

JP.

ENGLISH

人間

1 HUMAN

誕生

2 Birth

人間

2 Human Being

産声

3 initial cry

3 person

産湯

3 first birth

--

3 Homo sapiens (ホモサピエンス)

産着

3 baby clothes

男女

2 Man and Woman

誕生日

3 birthday

3 man

生誕

3 nativity

3 woman

赤子

2 Baby

処女

3 virgin

赤ん坊

3 babe

2 Self

嬰児

3 nursling

わたし

3 I (neutral speech)

3幼児

3 kid

3 I (male speech)

乳児

3 infant

人名

2 Personal Name

胎児

3 fetus

姓名

3 name

少年  少女

2 Boy * Girl

名前

3 someone's name

少年期

3 boyhood

人名

2 To Live

少女期

3 girlhood

生きる

2 Human Life

美童

3 pretty boy

人生

3 course of life

美少女

3 pretty girl

一生

3 lifetime

童女

3 little girl

半生

3 half a life

青年

2 Young Man or Woman

生死

3 life and death

青春

3 youth

 

青春期

3 adolescence

 


人間  HUMAN (continued)

JP.

ENGLISH

JP.

ENGLISH

結婚

2 Marriage

3 grandsire

婚礼

3 nuptials

3 beldam

結婚式

3 wedding ceremony

還暦

3 kanreki (end of the traditional 60‑year cycle)

花婿

3 bridegroom

長生き

3 longevity

花嫁

3 bride

長命

3 length of one’s days

仲人

3 go-between

晩年

3 evening of life, last days

介添人

3 bridesmaid

2 Death

結納

3 betrothal gift

死ぬ

3 to die

披露宴

3 wedding reception

死亡

3 demise / mortality

独り者

2 Unmarried person

大往生

3 die a calm death

独身

3 being single (bachelorhood, spinsterhood)

他界

3 pass away

出産

2 Childbearing

永眠

3 one's final rest

妊娠

3 pregnancy

身罷る

3 expire

受胎

3 conception

後の世

3 afterworld

身籠る

3 gestate / gestation

臨終

3 dying breath / deathbed

悪阻

3 morning sickness

死に水

3 wet a dying person’s mouth / attend someone’s deathbed

分娩

3 delivery

死者

3 dead

中年

2 Middle age

死体

3 dead body

更年期

3 climacteric

遺体

3 deceased

老年

2 Old age

遺言

2 Last will

老い

3 aging

遺言状

3 last will and testament

老人

3 elder person

遺書

3 farewell note

年寄り

3 oldster

葬式

2 Funeral

老爺

3 old man

葬儀

3 funeral ceremony / funeral service

老婆

3 old woman

3 mourning

 

鯨幕

3 kujiramaku (funeral curtain)

 


人間  HUMAN (continued)

JP.

ENGLISH

JP.

ENGLISH

遺影

2 Portrait of the Deceased

頭脳

3 grey matter / brains / intellectual power

2 Coffin

右脳

3 right brain

3 casket

左脳

3 left brain

3 coffin

大脳

3 cerebrum

納棺

3 place in a coffin

小脳

3 cerebellum

出棺

3 funeral cortege

2 Ear

葬る

3 entomb

耳朶

3 ear lobule

火葬

3 cremation

耳たぶ

3 ear lobe

鳥葬

3 sky burial

福耳

3 big ear lobes

土葬

3 burial

外耳

3 external ear

埋葬

3 sepulcher

内耳

3 internal ear

水葬

3 burial at sea

地獄耳

3 sharp ear

埋葬書

3 burial document

2 Face

2 Tomb

3 visage

墓石

3 tombstone

素顔

3 natural face

墓標

3 grave post

童顔

3 baby face

墓地

3 cemetery

丸顔

3 moon face

霊園

3 grave yard

馬面

3 horsy face

身体

2 Body, Corporeity, Frame

紅顔

3 red face

身体

3 body

2 Eye

3 body

まなこ

3 ocular

3 flesh

3 pupil

肉体

3 flesh and blood / corporeality

3 pupilla

女体

2 Body (frame) of  woman

目玉

3 eye ball

女身

3 female body

眼球

3 globe of eye

2 Head

両目

3 both eyes

こうべ

3 crown

両眼

3 binocular

2 Brain

3 eyelid

脳味噌

3 encephalon

 

 


人間  HUMAN (continued)

JP.

ENGLISH

JP.

ENGLISH

2 Nose

2 Neck

鼻梁

3 nasal bridge

うなじ

3 nape

鼻筋

3 ridge of the nose

首筋

3 scruff

鼻孔

3 nostril

2 Jaw

鼻の穴

3 nasal chamber

おとがい

3 chin

鼻先

3 before someone's nose

上顎

3 upper jaw

2 Mouth

下顎

3 under jaw

口腔

3 oral cavity

2 Throat

口元

3 around mouth

咽喉

3 throat region

2 Lip

喉仏

3 Adam's apple

2 Tongue

喉元

3 neck

べろ

3 tongue

2 Hair

巻き舌

3 rolling one's tongue

3 head hair

二枚舌

3 forked tongue

頭髪

3 chevelure (French: head of hair)

2 Tooth

黒髪

3 brunette hair

前歯

3 front tooth

白髪

3 gray hair

奥歯

3 back tooth

髪型

3 hairstyle

乳歯

3 baby tooth

長髪

3 long hair

糸切り歯

3 canine tooth

抜け毛

3 hair loss

八重歯

3 double tooth

3 beard

入れ歯

3 false tooth

胸毛

3 chest hair

義歯

3 artificial tooth

恥毛

3 pubic hair

2 Cheek

2 Shoulder

ほっぺた

3 sweet cheek

撫で肩

3 sloping shoulder

豊頬

3 plump cheek

怒り肩

3 square shoulder

 

肩こり

3 stiff neck

肩叩き

3 shoulder tap (put pressure on someone to resign)

 


人間  HUMAN (continued)

JP.

ENGLISH

JP.

ENGLISH

2 Chest

手足

2 Limb

胸元

3 bosom

2 Back

乳房

3 breast

背中

3 broad of the back

乳首

3 nipple

2 Lower back

3 milk

3 loin

2 Hand

臀部

3 lumber

両手

3 both hands

3 bottom

右手

3 right hand

ウエスト

3 waist

左手

3 left hand

ヒップ

3 hip

3 fist

柳腰

3 stoop

3 palm

2 Foot

手相

3 palm line

3 leg

3 arm

3 thigh

二の腕

3 upper arm

3 groin

細腕

3 thin arm

3 shin

3 elbow

3 knee

3 armpit

膝小僧

3 kneecap

2 Nail

足首

3 ankle

3深爪

3 pare nails to the quick

足音

3 footstep

3生爪

3 finger nail

陰部

2 Pubic region

3爪切り

3 nail clipper

3 pubis

3爪先

3 tiptoe

女陰

3 vagina

3爪痕

3 nail mark

男根

3 penis

2 Finger

ふぐり

3 testicle

3指きり

3 pinky promise

 

3指折り

3 count on one's fingers

3指紋

3 finger print

 

 


人間  HUMAN (continued)

JP.

ENGLISH

JP.

ENGLISH

内蔵

2 Internal organs

糞尿

2 Excretory substances

心臓

3 heart

排泄

3 elimination

3 lung

脱糞

3 incontinence

肝臓

3 liver

小便

3 urine

五臓六腑

3 five solid organs & six hollow organs

尿

3 pee

膀胱

3 vesica

尿[しと]

3 piss

胎内

3 womb

糞詰まり

3 constipation

2 Bone

野糞

3 feces in a field

頭蓋骨

3 skull

肥壺

3 manure pile

頭蓋

3 cranium

2 Tear(s)

背骨

3 spine

3 eye water

脊椎

3 vertebral column

感涙

3 weep

尾骶骨

3 coccyx

落涙

3 tear drop

尾骨

3 tailbone

血涙

3 bitter tears

鎖骨

3 collar bone

空涙

3 fake tears

骨片

3 bone fragment

2 Skin

2 Blood

皮膚

3 derma

血液

3 lifeblood

3 wrinkle

血圧

3 blood pressure

筋肉

3 muscle

血圧

3 low pressure

細胞

3 cell

低血圧

3 high pressure

2 Love

高血圧

3 blood vessel

恋人

3 lover

血管

3 artery

初恋

3 first love

動脈

3 vein

失恋

3 lost love

 

 

 


人間  HUMAN (continued)

JP.

ENGLISH

JP.

ENGLISH

2 Love

倖せ

3 Happiness for human being(s)

恋愛

3 romance

不安

2 fear

純愛

3 Platonic love

気懸かり

3 worry

相愛

3 mutual love

悲観

3 pessimism

求愛

3 courtship

疑い

3 uncertainty

博愛

3 caritas

猜疑心

3 suspicion

友愛

3 companionate love

疑惑

3 doubt

愛語

3 word of mercy

想像

2 Imagination

情事

2 Love Affair

2 Dream

不倫

3 adultery

夢路

3 path of dream

貞操

3 chastity

夢見

3 have a dream

2 Mind

正夢

3 prophetic dream

心理

3 mentality

逆夢

3 opposite dream

怒り

2 Anger

悪夢

3 nightmare

憤怒

3 rage

夢幻

3 illusion

忿懣

3 wrath

立つ

2 Stand

悲しい

2 Sadness

立ち上がる

3 stand up

悲嘆

3 lament

起つ

3 gain one's feet

悲痛

3 agony

歩く

2 Walk

愁い

2 Grief

歩行

3 walking

憂い

3 anxiety

徒歩

3 on foot

気鬱

3 feel depressed

徒歩

[かち]

3 trek

孤愁

3 lonesome

走る

2 Run

孤独

3 solitude

駆ける

3 rush

憂鬱

3 depression

疾走

3 scamper, career

寂しい

2 Lonely, Loneliness

疲れる

2 Tire

淋しい

3 solitary

疲れ

3 get tired

寂寞

3 desolate

疲労

3 tiredness / fatigue

寂寥

3 gaunt

眠る

2 Sleep

2 Sex

寝る

3 repose

性欲

3 lust

睡る

3 drowse

性感帯

3 erogenous zone

就寝

3 go to bed

幸福

2 Happiness

臥す

3 lie down

幸せ

3 happy

 

至福

3 bliss

 


人間  HUMAN (continued)

JP.

ENGLISH

JP.

ENGLISH

食う

2 Eat

肉親

2 Blood Relation

食べる

3 meat

3 parent

喰らう

3 bite

親子

3 parent-child

酔う

2 Get Drunk

父母

3 father-mother

ほろ酔い

3 tipsy

父親

3 father

深酔い

3 get very drunk

3 daddy

酩酊

3 inebriation

親父

3 old buddy

笑う

2 Laugh

父さん

3 papa

哄笑う

3 laugh jeeringly

老父

3 old father

高笑い

3 guffaw

母親

2 Mother

笑む

3 grin

3 Mom

微笑

3 smile

おふくろ

3 old lady

嘲笑

3 laugh in scorn

母さん

3 Mommy

泣く

2 Cry

老母

3 old mother

慟哭

3 wail

母性

3 motherhood

号泣

3 lament aloud

子供

2 Child

すすり泣く

3 sob

3 kid

会う

2 Meet

嬰児

3 infant

3逢う

3 get together

吾子

3 speaker's baby

3再会

3 meet again

子離れ

3 independence from an attachment to one's child

3邂逅

3 cross paths

夫婦

2 Couple

別れる

2 Part

夫妻

3 husband and wife

3離別

3 estrangement

3 husband

3決別

3 break away

亡夫

3 deceased husband

3永別

3 part forever

3 wife

働く

2 Work

家内

3 speaker's wife

労働

3 labor

女房

3 ‘missus’ (informal)

勤労

3 service

亡妻

3 deceased wife

苦役

3 toil

人妻

3 someone else's wife

 

 


人間  HUMAN (continued)

JP.

ENGLISH

JP.

ENGLISH

兄弟

2 Brothers

耳鳴り

3 ringing in the ear

3姉妹

3 sisters

黒死病

3 Black Death (plague)

3

3 elder brother

痴呆

3 dementia

3

3 younger brother

医療

2 Medical

3

3 elder sister

医局

3 medical office

3

3 younger sister

神経科

3 neurologist

3義兄弟

3 brother-in-law

超音波

3 CT scan (tomography)

3異母兄弟

3 half brother

透視室

3 fluoroscopy room

3

3 daughter-in-law

心電図

3 cardiogram

3婿

3 son-in-law

置き薬

3 household medicine

3叔母

3 aunt

胃腸薬

3 stomach medicine

3叔父

3 uncle

劇薬

3 emergency medicine

3

3 nephew

松葉杖

3 auxiliary crutch

3

3 niece

睡眠薬

3 sleeping medicine

2 Friend

精神安定剤

3 tranquilizer

3友人

3 best friend

3 drug

3親友

3 old friend

注射器

3 injector

3旧友

3 acquaintance

繃帯

3 bandage

漂泊者

2 Drifter

眼帯

3 eye patch

ホームレス

3 street people

義手

3 prosthetic hand

2 Sickness

 

3病む

3 get sick

3病者

3 patient

3病人

3 sick person

3長患い

3 long illness

3病名

3 name of disease

3 cancer

頭痛

3 headache

マラリア

3 malaria


生活  LIFE

JP.

ENGLISH

JP.

ENGLISH

生活

1 LIFE (Living)

ダンボール

2 Corrugated Paper (a Carton)

資本

2 Capital

リベット

2 Rivet

資本主義

3 capitalism

ロボット

2 Robot

2 King

造船

2 Shipbuilding

王政

3 monarchy

電気

2 Electricity

議会

2 Parliament

景気

2 Business (the market)

議員

3 MP (member of the Diet, an MC)

好況

2 Prosperity

組閣

3 The Cabinet (formation of a cabinet)

不況

2 Depression

議事堂

3 Diet

貧乏

2 Poverty

判決

2 Judgment

貧困

2 Deprivation, Indigence

裁判

3 trial (Justice)

貧窮

2 Beggary, Economic Poverty

裁判官

3 judge (the court)

新聞

2 Newspaper

勲章

2 Decoration, Honor, Medal, Insignia

朝刊

3 morning paper

叙勲

3 conferment of a decoration

夕刊

3 evening paper

受勲

3 recipient of a decoration

新聞紙

3 newspaper

税金

2 Tax

郵便

2 Mail

税務署

3 tax office

ポスト

3 mailbox

税務署員

3 tax collector (tax-office clerk)

切手

3stamp

署名運動

2 Petition campaign

葉書

3 postcard

反対署名

3 opposing (petition) signature

絵葉書

3 picture postcard

農業

2 Agriculture

エアメール

3 airmail (variant)

漁業

3 fishing

航空便

3 airmail (variant)

農婦

3 farmer (female)

電話

2 Telephone

農夫

3 farmer (male) (peasant)

受話器

3 receiver

3 a spade (plow, plough)

携帯電話

3 cellular phone

3 a hoe

テレビ電話

3 video phone

遊牧

3 nomadism

電報

3 telegram

密漁

3 poaching

学校

2 School 

工業

2 Industry

校歌

3 school song

ガラス

2 Glass

黒板

3 blackboard

 

2 Paper

理科室

3 science room

 


生活 LIFE (continued)

JP.

ENGLISH

JP.

ENGLISH

算術

3 arithmetic

隠語

3 cant (jargon, secret language)

給食費

3 charge for school lunch

文字

3 letter (orthographic character)

生徒

3 student

手話

3 sign language

卒業名簿

3 list of graduates

オノマトペ

3 onomatopoeia

廃校

3 closed school

てにをは

3 te-ni-wo-ha (grammatical post‑particles)

晩学

3 learning late in life

新幹線

2 Shinkansen (bullet train)

2地図

2 Map

寝台車

2 Sleeper

日本地図

3 a Japanese map

列車

3 train

世界地図

3 a world map

ブルートレイン

3 blue Train

地球儀

3 a globe

電車

2 Electric train (tram)

月球儀

3 globe of the moon

特急

3 special express

国家

2 A Nation

急行

3 express

3 a country

鈍行

3 slow train (local train)

母国

3 mother country (homeland)

機関車

2 Locomotive Engine

祖国

3 homeland, (native country)

列車

3 train

皇国

3 empire

夜汽車

3 night  train

鎖国

3 national isolation (seclusion)

夜行列車

3 night train

国旗

2 National Flag

貨車

2 Freight car

日の丸

3 rising-sun flag (flag of Japan)

貨物列車

3 freight train

日章旗

3 flag of the Rising Sun

炭車

3 coal car

3 flag

鉄道

2 Railroad

弔旗

3 flag draped in black (at half-mast)

地下鉄

3 subway

国家

2 State

鉄道馬車

3 horse‑drawn streetcar

愛国

2 Patriotism

バス

2 Bus

愛国者

3 a patriot

長距離バス

3 long‑distance bus

忠君愛国

3 loyalty and patriotism

夜行バス

3 overnight bus (night bus)

難民

3 refugee, displaced person

高速バス

3 express bus

3越境

3 border transgression

自動車

2 Car

民族

2 Race (ethnic group, a people)